Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Attempted murder



Here is another clinical case in which  our so called cancer treatments were used.  The writer is a chap i have been in contact with and is one of two men who survived agent orange induced liver cancer whom i know.  I also knew plenty of liver cancer victims as well who are no longer with us.

Without question the first thing all should do is switch to a vegan diet and then go from there.  surgery may still be necessary but if the cancer is in retreat it can be postponed safely.

Then the second thing needed is CBD therapy.  We are still mastering that art but it needs to be said.

All good.

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Doc S has left a new comment on your post "The Real Reason Big Pharma Wants to Own the Patent...":

Attempted Murder

Jesse came in this past September. I hardly recognized him. Well, I didn’t recognize him. He used to be a solid, strong, “good ole boy”. About 5’10”, stocky build, probably close to 200 pounds. Not flab either. This boy was tough.

I didn’t recognize him until I talked to him a couple of minutes. It had been about three years since I saw him last. “Oh Jesse, I remember now. What the hell happened”?

He was skin and bones, hardly anything left of him. To talk he had to plug the tube coming out of his neck and you could hardly hear him. He was pale and had that gray cast on him that people close to death get. Probably weighted about 110 pounds. It was quite pitiful to see. This guy used to be solid as a rock and here he was almost dead.

Cancer, the big C.

Yeah, they started the Chemo about a year ago. Burned a hole in his throat with the radiation and now he’s almost dead.

Jessie's a pretty smart boy. That “good ole boy” persona camouflages that. Along about last June he recognized what the Doctors were doing to him so he told them to f__k off and quit their treatment and went “all Natural”. Detoxed the chemo and now he was in here wanting me to correct the structural problems he had acquired going through all those medical procedures.

Jessie has been a patient here for at least 20 years so he knew I successfully eliminated the cancer I had from the Agent Orange crap of Vietnam fame. But structurally he was a mess. His neck was “frozen”. He couldn't turn his head left or right and was locked straight as an arrow. I got to work on him immediately.

He responded favorably immediately. Now two months later he can eat whole food and has put on about ten pounds. That gray cast is gone. He has normal color in his face. His cervical spine is about half way home. He can turn his head left and right and up and down now. He’s going to make it.

Attempted Murder.

Obviously Jesse would be dead now had he continued the orthodox medical treatment of Chemotherapy. But Jesse’s a pretty gutsy guy and recognized his destiny going down that road. So he changed it. He told the “experts” to F__k-off and at first didn’t do anything as his body naturally detoxed the chemicals. Now he’s getting the structural problems corrected. I advised him on diet and a few other things so with all of it combined he’ll probably be back to that Smart-ass, strong, wonderful guy he was before the so-called Cancer laid him low. If he even had the Cancer in the first place. Yes, I’ve seen that all too often.

Well, ladies and gentlemen, shouldn’t these doctors and drug companies be charged with attempted murder?

Jesse would have died in June or July for sure had he continued down that road. He chose another way and is alive thereof because of it. The biggest reason he survived is he stopped poisoning himself.

We all know many people who have gone “natural” instead of the chemo and survived the dreaded big C, Cancer. Should all those people turn around and charge their doctors with Attempted Murder? I think that’s what you’re going to start seeing.

Marijuana is getting legalized all across the board. Why? Not for its recreational use but for its medicinal use. Historically marijuana has been used for centuries as an excellent herbal remedy. And, what do ya know, the scientists are proving it legitimate. It works if that’s the protocol you need.

I’m not advocating lawsuits against your doctor for attempted murder. That’s a seriously dangerous road to go down. Over 50 holistic doctors have mysteriously died the last couple of years trying to go public with cancer cures. I don’t want to be added to that list so I don’t teach it anymore.

But a lawsuit? Attempted murder charge? That’s going to be a very dangerous road to go down also. But the stats are there. The survivors are there. Will it ever happen? I doubt it. The money’s too big. 

The politicians are paid off. It won’t happen.

Besides, people would have to stop worshiping their medical doctor then and we can’t have that now can we???

Harvard Immunologist: Unvaccinated Children Pose ZERO Risk to Anyone and Here’s Why



This spells it out pretty clearly, although i will soon see some ad homin attacks on this particular individual.

It also supports the possible ending of vaccination as a universal tool for at least a reasonable test period in order to find out what actually happens.  It would still be the weapon of choice for an emergency situation where we have good knowledge.

Right now a valuable local field tool has been turned into a cash flow monster by Dr Frankenstein.
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Harvard Immunologist: Unvaccinated Children Pose ZERO Risk to Anyone and Here’s Why

Nov 8, 2017


Dear Legislator:

http://truthstreammedia.com/2017/11/08/harvard-immunologist-unvaccinated-children-pose-zero-risk-anyone-heres/


My name is Tetyana Obukhanych. I hold a PhD in Immunology. I am writing this letter in the hope that it will correct several common misperceptions about vaccines in order to help you formulate a fair and balanced understanding that is supported by accepted vaccine theory and new scientific findings.


Do unvaccinated children pose a higher threat to the public than the vaccinated?


It is often stated that those who choose not to vaccinate their children for reasons of conscience endanger the rest of the public, and this is the rationale behind most of the legislation to end vaccine exemptions currently being considered by federal and state legislators country-wide. You should be aware that the nature of protection afforded by many modern vaccines – and that includes most of the vaccines recommended by the CDC for children – is not consistent with such a statement. I have outlined below the recommended vaccines that cannot prevent transmission of disease either because they are not designed to prevent the transmission of infection (rather, they are intended to prevent disease symptoms), or because they are for non-communicable diseases. People who have not received the vaccines mentioned below pose no higher threat to the general public than those who have, implying that discrimination against non-immunized children in a public school setting may not be warranted.


IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine) cannot prevent transmission of poliovirus. Wild poliovirus has been non-existent in the USA for at least two decades. Even if wild poliovirus were to be re-imported by travel, vaccinating for polio with IPV cannot affect the safety of public spaces. Please note that wild poliovirus eradication is attributed to the use of a different vaccine, OPV or oral poliovirus vaccine. Despite being capable of preventing wild poliovirus transmission, use of OPV was phased out long ago in the USA and replaced with IPV due to safety concerns.


Tetanus is not a contagious disease, but rather acquired from deep-puncture wounds contaminated with C. tetani spores. Vaccinating for tetanus (via the DTaP combination vaccine) cannot alter the safety of public spaces; it is intended to render personal protection only.


While intended to prevent the disease-causing effects of the diphtheria toxin, the diphtheria toxoid vaccine (also contained in the DTaP vaccine) is not designed to prevent colonization and transmission of C. diphtheriae. Vaccinating for diphtheria cannot alter the safety of public spaces; it is likewise intended for personal protection only.


The acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine (the final element of the DTaP combined vaccine), now in use in the USA, replaced the whole cell pertussis vaccine in the late 1990s, which was followed by an unprecedented resurgence of whooping cough. An experiment with deliberate pertussis infection in primates revealed that the aP vaccine is not capable of preventing colonization and transmission of B. pertussis. The FDA has issued a warning regarding this crucial finding.


Furthermore, the 2013 meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors at the CDC revealed additional alarming data that pertussis variants (PRN-negative strains) currently circulating in the USA acquired a selective advantage to infect those who are up-to-date for their DTaP boosters, meaning that people who are up-to-date are more likely to be infected, and thus contagious, than people who are not vaccinated.


Among numerous types of H. influenzae, the Hib vaccine covers only type b. Despite its sole intention to reduce symptomatic and asymptomatic (disease-less) Hib carriage, the introduction of the Hib vaccine has inadvertently shifted strain dominance towards other types of H. influenzae (types a through f).These types have been causing invasive disease of high severity and increasing incidence in adults in the era of Hib vaccination of children. The general population is more vulnerable to the invasive disease now than it was prior to the start of the Hib vaccination campaign. Discriminating against children who are not vaccinated for Hib does not make any scientific sense in the era of non-type b H. influenzae disease.


Hepatitis B is a blood-borne virus. It does not spread in a community setting, especially among children who are unlikely to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as needle sharing or sex. Vaccinating children for hepatitis B cannot significantly alter the safety of public spaces. Further, school admission is not prohibited for children who are chronic hepatitis B carriers. To prohibit school admission for those who are simply unvaccinated – and do not even carry hepatitis B – would constitute unreasonable and illogical discrimination.


In summary, a person who is not vaccinated with IPV, DTaP, HepB, and Hib vaccines due to reasons of conscience poses no extra danger to the public than a person who is. No discrimination is warranted.


How often do serious vaccine adverse events happen?


It is often stated that vaccination rarely leads to serious adverse events. Unfortunately, this statement is not supported by science. A recent study done in Ontario, Canada, established that vaccination actually leads to an emergency room visit for 1 in 168 children following their 12-month vaccination appointment and for 1 in 730 children following their 18-month vaccination appointment.


When the risk of an adverse event requiring an ER visit after well-baby vaccinations is demonstrably so high, vaccination must remain a choice for parents, who may understandably be unwilling to assume this immediate risk in order to protect their children from diseases that are generally considered mild or that their children may never be exposed to.


Can discrimination against families who oppose vaccines for reasons of conscience prevent future disease outbreaks of communicable viral diseases, such as measles?


Measles research scientists have for a long time been aware of the “measles paradox.” I quote from the article by Poland & Jacobson (1994) “Failure to Reach the Goal of Measles Elimination: Apparent Paradox of Measles Infections in Immunized Persons.” Arch Intern Med 154:1815-1820:


“The apparent paradox is that as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a population, measles becomes a disease of immunized persons.”


Further research determined that behind the “measles paradox” is a fraction of the population called low vaccine responders. Low-responders are those who respond poorly to the first dose of the measles vaccine. These individuals then mount a weak immune response to subsequent RE-vaccination and quickly return to the pool of “susceptibles’’ within 2-5 years, despite being fully vaccinated.


Re-vaccination cannot correct low-responsiveness: it appears to be an immuno-genetic trait. The proportion of low-responders among children was estimated to be 4.7% in the USA.


Studies of measles outbreaks in Quebec, Canada, and China attest that outbreaks of measles still happen, even when vaccination compliance is in the highest bracket (95-97% or even 99%). This is because even in high vaccine responders, vaccine-induced antibodies wane over time. Vaccine immunity does not equal life-long immunity acquired after natural exposure.


It has been documented that vaccinated persons who develop breakthrough measles are contagious. In fact, two major measles outbreaks in 2011 (in Quebec, Canada, and in New York, NY) were re-imported by previously vaccinated individuals.


Taken together, these data make it apparent that elimination of vaccine exemptions, currently only utilized by a small percentage of families anyway, will neither solve the problem of disease resurgence nor prevent re-importation and outbreaks of previously eliminated diseases.


Is discrimination against conscientious vaccine objectors the only practical solution?


The majority of measles cases in recent US outbreaks (including the recent Disneyland outbreak) are adults and very young babies, whereas in the pre-vaccination era, measles occurred mainly between the ages 1 and 15. Natural exposure to measles was followed by lifelong immunity from re-infection, whereas vaccine immunity wanes over time, leaving adults unprotected by their childhood shots. Measles is more dangerous for infants and for adults than for school-aged children.


Despite high chances of exposure in the pre-vaccination era, measles practically never happened in babies much younger than one year of age due to the robust maternal immunity transfer mechanism. The vulnerability of very young babies to measles today is the direct outcome of the prolonged mass vaccination campaign of the past, during which their mothers, themselves vaccinated in their childhood, were not able to experience measles naturally at a safe school age and establish the lifelong immunity that would also be transferred to their babies and protect them from measles for the first year of life.


Luckily, a therapeutic backup exists to mimic now-eroded maternal immunity. Infants as well as other vulnerable or immunocompromised individuals, are eligible to receive immunoglobulin, a potentially life-saving measure that supplies antibodies directed against the virus to prevent or ameliorate disease upon exposure.


In summary: 1) due to the properties of modern vaccines, non-vaccinated individuals pose no greater risk of transmission of polio, diphtheria, pertussis, and numerous non-type b H. influenzae strains than vaccinated individuals do, non-vaccinated individuals pose virtually no danger of transmission of hepatitis B in a school setting, and tetanus is not transmissible at all; 2) there is a significantly elevated risk of emergency room visits after childhood vaccination appointments attesting that vaccination is not risk-free; 3) outbreaks of measles cannot be entirely prevented even if we had nearly perfect vaccination compliance; and 4) an effective method of preventing measles and other viral diseases in vaccine-ineligible infants and the immunocompromised, immunoglobulin, is available for those who may be exposed to these diseases.


Taken together, these four facts make it clear that discrimination in a public school setting against children who are not vaccinated for reasons of conscience is completely unwarranted as the vaccine status of conscientious objectors poses no undue public health risk.



Sincerely Yours,


~ Tetyana Obukhanych, PhD

No Smoking Gun? The JFK Files are on Fire!!

NO SMOKING GUN? THE JFK FILES ARE ON FIRE!

 

By Roger Stone and Saint John Hunt

https://stonecoldtruth.com/no-smoking-gun-the-jfk-files-are-on-fire/
On Thursday, October 26th I urged the President to release the balance of the classified documents regarding the assassination of Pres. John F Kennedy, after a phone conversation with my friend, colleague and sometimes co-author Saint John Hunt. Only days later the president would make the courageous decision to release this vital material.
Mainstream media is downplaying the importance of the newly released JFK files. Does that surprise you? USA TODAY, MSN.COM, FOX NEWS, U.K. TELEGRAPH and NBC NEWS are among the many mainstream news organizations to headline their report on the files, stating that there is “no smoking gun” in the newly released JFK files.  How quickly they drew their conclusions only after hours of the release.  We have read through hundreds of the files, both the October and the November files and I can tell you that this is a monumental effort to properly access the information in these files.  Some of the more damning files are as follows:
 The Soviet Union had proof that LBJ was behind Kennedy’s assassination.   
Soviet spies believed that President Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the death of the John F. Kennedy, according to an FBI document.
Sources told the American agency that officials in the USSR “believed there was some well-organized conspiracy on the part of the ‘ultra right’” that led to the 1963 assassination, with later claims that there was evidence to show the vice president’s involvement.  The claim was part of a memo on the Soviet reaction to Kennedy’s death forwarded from then-FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to Johnson’s assistant Marvin Watson in 1966 and now published as part of the newly unveiled JFK archive.  “Our sources added that in instructions from Moscow, it was indicated that ‘now’ the KGB was in possession of data purporting to indicate President Johnson was responsible for the assassination of the late President John F. Kennedy,” one part of the document reads, citing intelligence from 1965.
Another related memo in the files tells that less than a year after President Kennedy was assassinated, a Soviet diplomat was quoted as saying that he believed a “person as nervous as” Lee Harvey Oswald wasn’t capable of the attack.  The remark from Soviet Consul Pavel Yatskov in Mexico City appears in the latest batch of JFK files released Friday. “I met Oswald here. He stormed into my office and wanted me to introduce and recommend him to the Cubans,” Yatskov said, according to the July 1964 memo from then-CIA Deputy Director Richard Helms. “He told me that he had lived in the USSR. I told him that I would have had to check before I could recommend him.  “He was nervous and his hands trembled, and he stormed out of my office. I don’t believe that a person as nervous as Oswald, whose hands trembled could have accurately fired a rifle.”
Helms was at the time in charge of conducting the investigation of Oswald’s activities overseas.  The source of the Yatskov statement was described as a “confidential contact of this Agency in Mexico City who is believed to be reliable.”
LBJ and the KKK    
In an internal FBI report from May 1964, an informant told the FBI that the Ku Klux Klan said it “had documented proof that President Johnson was formerly a member of the Klan in Texas during the early days of his political career.”   “ Ned Touchstone, editor of “The Councilor”, has been identified by a confidential informant (NO 1223-R) as a member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.  The source advised in December 1963, that Touchstone claimed that the Klan had documented proof that President Johnson was formerly a member of the Klan in Texas during the early days of his political career.”  This may not have direct bearing on JFK’s death but it serves to show what a scumbag Johnson was.
CIA lied about relationship with Oswald
When Dick Helms (CIA boss) was questioned about Oswald this is what was said:
  1. BELIN: Is there any information involved with the assassination of President Kennedy which in any way shows that Lee Harvey Oswald was in some way a CIA agent or an agent… “Agent of the FBI or any other Government agency?” Here is how Helms responds: “my recollection is not all that precise. I believe that Mr. Hoover testified that he had not been an agent of theirs either. He was certainly not an agent of the CIA. He was certainly never used by the CIA.”
Helms was lying about Oswald’s relationship with the CIA and the FBI.  In a confidential memo from John McCone (Director of CIA) to James Rowley (Chief of the Secret Service) dated March 3, 1964 McCone writes: “In response to the request made by your office on 24 Feb 1964 re: Lee Oswald’s activities and assignments on behalf of this agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation, there follows a narrative summary of the internal subversive activities of the Oswald subject.”
“I recommend that unless the Commission makes a specific request for specific information contained herein, that this information not be volunteered.”
“Oswald subject was trained by this agency (CIA), under cover of the Office of Naval Intelligence, for Soviet assignments.  During preliminary training in 1957, subject was active in aerial reconnaissance of Mainland China and maintained a security clearance up to ‘confidential’ level.”
“Subject received additional indoctrination at our Camp Peary site from Sept. 6, to October 17, 1958, and participated in a few relatively minor assignments until arrangements were made for his entry into the Soviet Union on Sept. 1959.  While in the Soviet Union, he was on special assignment in the area of Minsk.”  This little-known memo answers the question of Oswald’s CIA and FBI connections.  According to the once-classified CIA files on Oswald, they show that the CIA had opened a file on Oswald in 1959.  The file was held by the agency’s Office of Security in December 1959, shortly after Oswald moved to the Soviet Union. This file was controlled by Betty Egerter, an aide to counterintelligence chief Angleton, who worked in an office called the Special Investigations Group. All information about Oswald received by the State Department, FBI and Office of Naval Intelligence was funneled to the SIG.  Only a year later, on Dec. 9, 1960, did Egerter open a “201 file” on Oswald.  A ‘201’ file is a personality assessment file.
Yet mainstream media such as the UK Telegraph, report that “Lee Harvey Oswald had no links to CIA.”  As proof, the UK Telegraph reported that a 1975 CIA memo shows that the agency scoured its own records to see if Oswald was connected with it in “any conceivable way.” Stating that “an exhaustive search found no links whatsoever with the CIA or any other US government agency.”   The AP via boston.com also stated Government documents newly released Friday regarding John F. Kennedy’s assassination say allegations that Lee Harvey Oswald was connected to the CIA were “totally unfounded.”
Referring to Nicholas Katzenbach, the deputy attorney general at the time, Hoover dictated: “The thing I am concerned about, and so is Mr. Katzenbach, is having something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin.” Katzenbach is known from previously released documents to have shared Hoover’s concern, writing in a memo the next day, on Nov. 25, 1963, that “the public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin; that he did not have confederates who are still at large; and that evidence was such that he would have been convicted at trial.”
E Howard Hunt’s secret diary
The missing handwritten “diary” of E Howard Hunt is buried in the October release of the JFK files.  This is only, I believe, a portion of his infamous diary, and not the entire writing.  As one might recall that during the first few months when the Watergate scandal was barely making headlines, there was a dramatic and dangerous campaign by Hunt and his wife Dorothy to blackmail President Nixon into paying money to Hunt for his silence.  In Nixon’s own words captured in oval office recordings to his inner circle, he stresses that “Hunt knows too much.”  How much did Hunt know and what did he know?  Nixon placed a minimum value on Hunt’s threats to go public at over one million dollars.  That may not sound like very much by today’s standards but by today’s standards, the 1972 million is now, in 2017, half a billion dollars.  To be exact, it’s $585.61 million.
So what did Hunt have on Nixon?  Well in the 9-page “diary” Hunt chronicles the Nixon approved, and at that time unknown CIA and Mafia plan to assassinate, among others, Fidel Castro.  Back in 1972, this was political dynamite and would have caused Nixon his place in the upcoming November presidential election.   Much of the “diary” is hard to read but I have worked out a great deal of what Hunt chronicled.  Money was paid to Hunt but in Dec. 1972 as Dorothy Hunt was on her way to Chicago to hold a press conference with CBS anchor Michelle Clark, the plane, United 553, crashed into a residential area near Midway Airport killing Dorothy Hunt.  Mrs. Hunt was carrying copies of the “diary”.  Officials placed the blame for the crash on “pilot error.”  On closer examination of events, it’s clear that the crash was deliberate.  The day after the crash Nixon appointed White House aide Egil Krogh (Hunt’s boss in the secret “plumbers” team) Undersecretary of Transportation, supervising the NTSB and FAA investigations into the crash.  One week later Nixon appointed his Deputy Assistant Alexander Butterfield head of the FAA.  Five weeks after that Dwight Chapin, Nixon’s appointment secretary became a top executive at United Airlines.  In the days following the crash Hunt pled guilty to charges stemming from Watergate and the blackmail threats stopped.
FILES NOT YET RELEASED
Oswald’s complete 201 file.  This contains hundreds of pages on Oswald from the CIA, ONI, FBI and other agencies.  See Oswald 201 File (201-289248) – Mary Ferrell Foundation
Files on George Johanides, James Angleton, and David Morales are some of the most important ones.  Many more files are still not available, and one can only hope that President Trump will push for their release in the days to come.  Stay tuned for more “non-smoking gun” files as we continue our investigation.
Un-redact the rest
This is the final cash of documents that are scheduled for release under the 1992 JFK documents Act passed by the Congress. President Trump should now order the National Archives to go back and review all of the documents previously released using the same standard he ordered in the release of these confidential files; material that can be redacted or withheld must regard people still living.
Sources:

Hiding in plain sight: The mystery of the sun’s missing matter

hole sun main

 
 
 One of the direct consequences of my cloud cosmology derived from understanding the first act of creation being the Space time Pendulum naturally impling three tiers of matter is that all the stars and planets are shells fed by an inner sun of first tier matter actually producing second tier ( Dark Matter) and the observed third tier matter.

Needless to say, i do not want to say all that too loudly.

Yet today we have this.  Better data has opened up the prospect of a hollow sun and even the existence of an outer shell of dark Matter and I did not say this.


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Hiding in plain sight: The mystery of the sun’s missing matter


A mass equivalent to 1500 Earths has vanished from the sun. Tracking it down could transform how we see the stars

18 October 2017

By Shannon Palus

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23631482-800-hiding-in-plain-sight-the-mystery-of-the-suns-missing-matter/


THERE is a hole in the sun. Right in the middle, a mass the size of 1500 Earths has simply disappeared. Much of what we know about the sun’s behaviour says it should be there – but when we interpret the data encoded in sunlight, that chunk of stuff is nowhere to be seen.

That has shaken up our understanding of how the sun works, and physicists are struggling to figure out what fills that hole. It could be a thing, like dark matter. It could be a concept, with elements such as carbon and nitrogen simply behaving in a way we didn’t expect under crushing pressure. Or perhaps we’re looking at the sun in the wrong way.


It’s a very hot problem, says Sunny Vagnozzi, a physicist at Stockholm University in Sweden. That’s no joke. The sun is important not just because it supplies the heat and light that sustain us. It is also our key to the wider universe, the reference against which we measure stars: their brightness, their age, how likely their solar systems are to support life. Start messing with the sun, and the consequences stretch as far as our telescopes can see. “If we get the sun wrong, we get everything wrong,” says Sarbani Basu at Yale University.

It’s not easy to figure out what’s inside the sun. “We can’t go and take a sample,” says Basu. There are two main ways to investigate. Helioseismologists such as Basu look at sound vibrations on the sun’s surface, which give outward evidence of the vast quantities of energy being unleashed within. That energy depends on the sun’s internal structure, as well as its ingredients, which Basu can identify by working backwards from observations beamed from her space-based probes.

Then there are spectroscopists, who look at the light from the sun. They pass it through high-tech prisms, decomposing it into stripes that serve as unique barcodes for its constituent elements.

For years, these two methods painted the same picture of the sun: a vast and dense ball of matter, mostly hydrogen and helium, that clumped together some 4.6 billion years ago and formed our solar system. Included in the mixture was a sprinkling of other elements carried by the explosions of larger, dying stars. For simplicity, astronomers refer to all these heavier elements, which include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, magnesium, iron and sulphur, as metals. They can be found scattered throughout the interior of the sun, making up a little less than 2 per cent of its total mass. Despite their minority status, these heavy elements play a crucial role, shuttling energy from the core out to the boiling layer on the surface.

In the late 1990s, Martin Asplund was a young researcher in Copenhagen when he first realised this picture was not quite right. He was studying the motions of the outer layers of boiling stars, a requisite step towards performing more accurate spectroscopic calculations to unlock the light’s secrets.

At the time, the mathematical imaginings of star surfaces used by spectroscopists were simplistic. In fact, they were literally one-dimensional, concerned only with the behaviour of an idealised solar surface possessing zero width. But the surface of the sun is decidedly three-dimensional. With a departmental supercomputer at his disposal, Asplund built a model that took height and width into account.

“It could have been that it made no difference at all,” says Asplund, now at the Australian National University in Canberra. Over the years, there had been many little upgrades to these solar models, and all of them had left the heavy elements relatively untouched. But Asplund’s update was different. By 2009, he had startling results: a quarter of the metals we had counted on being there could no longer be found. They had simply vanished.
 
Staring at the sun

His measurements flew in the face of what researchers like Basu had observed. If you assumed that Asplund’s figures held up, helioseismology could no longer explain the behaviour of the sun. The quantities of helium on the solar surface didn’t tally; the outer layer became too thin; sound travelled through it at the wrong speed. It was clear that someone somewhere was doing something wrong. “A lot of people doubted it,” says Asplund. “I was not very popular.”

The easiest conclusion was that Asplund was wrong. In the hope of performing an independent cross-check, earlier this year a team examined the contents of the solar wind – streams of particles that continuously fly off the sun. The group found nothing to indicate that any matter was missing. Instead, they found indications of a total metallicity more or less on a par with what Basu’s work predicts.

“You might naively think this solves the problem,” says Vagnozzi, who participated in this study. “But it doesn’t.” The hole is filled, but the filling makes no sense. The proportions of various elements are all wrong – different from anything anyone else has found – offering no definitive resolution. “You essentially screw up the sun,” says Vagnozzi.

Thus far, nobody has found a way to discount Asplund’s conclusions. And as his results have become widely accepted, they have had consequences well beyond the sun. As our closest and most accessible star, the sun informs our understanding of its cousins across the cosmos. Consequently, in the decade since his figures came out, Asplund’s work on the composition of the sun has rapidly become one of the most cited papers in astronomy. More and more heavy elements get blasted out into the universe as the millennia tick past, which informs us when stars were born and helps us understand their evolution. That in turn tells us how likely they are to have Earth-like planets sailing around them, and whether any of those planets could accommodate life.




Neutrino detectors such as Borexino in Italy could clear up the solar mystery

Volker Steger/Science Photo Library As the effects rippled through astronomy, some solar physicists relished the opportunity to question long-standing beliefs. With so many simplifications and assumptions in our calculations about the sun, something else was bound to be going on. Doron Gazit, a physicist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, was one of those who spotted a way through the confusion: maybe Asplund’s metal tally was spot on, but the elements were not behaving as expected. The reduced quantities of matter predicted in the 2009 paper could be made to match up with the helioseismological data if they carried energy like a larger quantity of metals would.


To Gazit, the key lay in a quality known as opacity, which dictates how much energy can pass through a given material. Heavier elements, such as those that had mysteriously disappeared from the sun’s interior, are more opaque than hydrogen and helium. For the helioseismology results to hold up, the opacity of the remaining elements inside the sun had to be increased. And that meant they must absorb more photons than had previously been thought possible.

You can think of an atom as a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons that orbit at precisely defined energy levels. Like a vending machine that only accepts exact change, getting anything interesting to happen involves putting in exact quantities of energy. If an incoming photon has enough energy to cause an electron to jump energy levels, it is often absorbed and contributes to the atom’s opacity. Otherwise, it passes straight through. Under the extreme temperatures and pressures of the solar core, the atoms would jiggle about more than normal. This motion would make some energy levels grow further apart, while others would come closer together. That expands the range of photons that any one atom could absorb, thereby offering a mechanism to increase the opacity.

“This is unknown physics,” says Gazit. The only way to test the opacity would be to observe atoms interacting with light under temperatures and pressures similar to those in the sun. A seemingly impossible task. But not for Jim Bailey, at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico. At the lab’s Z Pulsed Power Facility, or Z machine for short, matter can be exposed to some of the highest temperatures and pressures on the planet for the briefest fraction of a second.

During a run of experiments whose results were published in 2015, Bailey exposed a disc of iron barely 4 millimetres across to a flash of energy that represents five times the planet’s entire output. Conditions on the disc mimicked those inside the sun, with temperatures and pressures high enough to take the iron atoms well out of their comfort zone.

Those experiments revealed that in such situations, iron does indeed have a higher opacity than thought, although not enough to explain away the hole. It’s a pioneering measurement, says Gazit. Solar physicists agree: Bailey’s opacity measurements have the potential to solve this whole problem.

Of course, the iron in these experiments represents the conditions that exist in just one spot inside the sun. It would take Bailey forever to recreate the rest of the sun’s interior piece by piece. “There are too many elements and too many different temperatures,” he says. So now it’s up to theorists to try to figure out whether the rest of the metals could have seen their opacity increase too. But whether those refined models will push the opacity in the right direction overall is hard to say.

If not, perhaps another kind of matter is picking up the slack for the missing elements. After all, spectroscopy only detects matter capable of absorbing or emitting radiation. Dark matter, of the kind that makes up about 27 per cent of our known universe, does neither. Aldo Serenelli at the Institute of Space Sciences in Barcelona, Spain, is part of a team proposing that this property makes dark matter a plausible candidate for filling the new-found hole at the sun’s centre.

Getting several billion megatonnes of dark matter to accumulate at the centre of the sun is not as difficult as you might think. Like all other forms of matter, the dark stuff should experience the pull of gravity. On our galaxy’s slow journey through space, any dark matter we bumped into would be likely to find itself drawn to the centre of the sun. Once in place, there are all sorts of tricks it could pull to explain the helioseismology results. Perhaps the mysterious stuff is its own antiparticle, releasing energy when it collides with itself. Or if not, perhaps there’s a shell of dark matter surrounding the core of the sun. It would get pretty hot and, from time to time, particles would break away, travelling to the boiling outside and transporting energy with them.

The problem with many of these scenarios is that you wind up making things worse, not better. At best, you get a partial improvement. Still, it’s hard to rule out that there’s some unicorn version of the stuff sitting in the centre of the sun, solving all our problems. “I would say it’s a remote possibility,” says Serenelli.


“Several billion megatonnes of dark matter could lie at the centre of the sun”

Part of what makes this issue so contentious is that it questions fundamental properties of the sun we thought were well-established. Which is why some are still reluctant to accept that the metals are truly missing.

The easiest way to resolve the controversy would be to produce an independent measurement of the sun’s insides – one more conclusive than earlier attempts to test the solar wind. That knockout punch could come from neutrinos, lightweight particles produced as shrapnel in the fusion reactions taking place inside the sun.

Every second, some 65 billion of those solar neutrinos are passing through any given square centimetre on Earth, travelling at nearly light speed. The vast majority are created when hydrogen nuclei collide in the outer reaches of the sun. But one in a hundred, or thereabouts, are born during heavier fusion processes involving atoms of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. By measuring the amount of these CNO neutrinos that reach a given spot on Earth, you can work out the exact number spilling out of the sun – and from that, how many of these heavy elements are there creating them.

Such a direct probe would allow us to bypass all the theory that underpins the work of Asplund and Basu. “We would be able to really solve this,” says Michael Wurm, a neutrino hunter working on the Borexino detector underneath the mountains of central Italy.

One little problem: neither Wurm nor anybody else has ever knowingly seen a CNO neutrino. Even by comparison with other neutrinos, which are infamously hard to detect, CNO ones are discreet. So discreet, in fact, that we may have already spotted them without realising. The trouble is that they look so much like other kinds of neutrinos – the ones produced during hydrogen fusion, for example – that working out their particular, subtle signal requires the collection of an enormous quantity of neutrinos, perhaps more than Borexino is capable of collecting.

Our best hope is in a new Canadian detector called SNO+, equipped with a massive tank of fluid primed to give off pinpricks of blue light when a neutrino passes through it. Larger and deeper underground than Borexino, it could filter out more noise and hopefully spot more particles. At present, SNO+ is still filled with water, but in January the team plans to replace that with the scintillator fluid that could serve, finally, as a glimpse into the solar core.

The neutrinos could confirm that Asplund’s numbers are correct. They could reveal that he’s wrong and that the hole never existed at all. Or they could worsen the confusion surrounding our home star. The hole in the sun could be about to get a lot bigger.

This article appeared in print under the headline “What’s wrong with the sun?”
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